At the end of the 18th century the Habsburgs rejected the Enlightenment and reforms. The radicalism of the French revolution, which found support especially in the secret and unsuccessful movement of the Hungarian Jacobins, indirectly contributed to this.
During the 19th century, the population, especially in the mountain areas, grew faster than industrial and economic modernisation.
In 1938 the Sudetenland was allocated to Germany by the Munich Dictat, the Vienna Arbitrage allocated the southern parts of Slovakia to Hungary, Poland claimed smaller parts of northern Slovakia, and Slovakia and Sub-Carpathian Ukraine acquired autonomy in a delimited Czechoslovakia.
After 1945, politicians and members of the resistance returned from overseas, while groups o